From this point of view, the primary enforcers of enforcing human rights standards have always been nation-states, which have always interacted with each other at the interstate level, from government to government. Letter introduced in this image U, N. International human rights law establishes obligations that States are obliged to respect. By becoming parties to international treaties, States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, protect and give effect to human rights.
The obligation to respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or restricting the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect requires States to protect individuals and groups against human rights violations. The obligation to comply means that States must take positive steps to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights. It is generally accepted that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the basis of international human rights law.
Adopted in 1948, the UDHR has inspired a rich set of legally binding international human rights treaties. It remains an inspiration to all of us, whether in addressing injustices, in times of conflict, in societies suffering from repression and in our efforts to achieve the universal enjoyment of human rights. It represents the universal recognition that basic rights and fundamental freedoms are inherent in all human beings, inalienable and equally applicable to all, and that each of us is born free and equal in dignity and rights. Regardless of our nationality, place of residence, gender, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language or any other status, the international community on December 10, 1948 pledged to defend dignity and justice for all of us.
International law is a crucial aspect of human rights. Governments are in a powerful position to control the freedoms of individuals or groups, freedoms that may be more difficult to gain without international agreement and pressure. International human rights law, through treaties, acts on States. Documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaim the ideals of nations that aspire to respect the human rights of people of all nations.
However, legally these documents do not bind countries. Rather, treaties such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights provide the international legal framework for protecting human rights. Under these treaties, nations agree to abide by certain restrictions on their conduct and to defend certain freedoms and basic needs of citizens. The implementation of human rights treaties naturally requires nations to comply with the terms of their agreements, and several approaches are used to enforce agreements.
Commissions and other specially designated bodies oversee compliance. In addition, multilateral organizations such as the United Nations and the Council of Europe can impose sanctions or other measures against recalcitrant States. International tribunals offer an additional avenue to ensure compliance. Individuals can also be held responsible for human rights violations if they are brought before such a court and found guilty.
A notable example is the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, which was created to indict Serbian army officers who allegedly committed war crimes during the disintegration of Yugoslavia. He set a precedent in the Nuremberg Courts. Human rights law is, therefore, a body of international law of treaties and decisions of international tribunals, although many individual states may also have enacted national laws that protect what are traditionally considered human rights. The expansion of liberal democracy and, therefore, the increase in the success of international law (at least among these democracies), leads to an increase in community reasons for State obedience to international law.
When domestic legal procedures do not address human rights abuses, mechanisms and procedures for individual complaints or communications are available at the regional and international levels to help ensure that international human rights standards are respected, implemented and applied at the level local. It is an international organization with legal personality recognized by public international law and has observer status with the United Nations. The body of international human rights law continues to grow, evolve and develop the fundamental rights and freedoms contained in the International Bill of Human Rights, addressing concerns such as racial discrimination, torture, enforced disappearances, disabilities and women's rights, children, migrants, minorities and indigenous peoples. The first international legal norms were adopted under the auspices of the International Labour Organization (ILO), which was founded in 1919 as part of the Versailles Peace Treaty.
Other international human rights instruments, while not legally binding, contribute to the application, understanding and development of international human rights law and have been recognized as a source of political obligations. Since World War II, significant progress has been made in expanding the normative scope of international human rights law, which has led to the proliferation of human rights law at the international level. Regional systems of international human rights standards complement and complement national and international human rights standards by protecting and promoting human rights in specific areas of the world. This process consists of the interaction between international institutions, the interpretation of the legal norms they develop and the internalization of these norms in the collective conscience of international actors and national systems.
There is currently no international court administering international human rights law, but there are quasi-judicial bodies under some UN treaties (such as the Human Rights Committee under the ICCPR). However, the lack of public knowledge of international human rights standards does not mean that there is no public awareness of national human rights standards, which, based on the breakdown of international standards identified above, are likely to be very similar. In an increasingly liberal democratic international society, and within predominantly liberal regional organizations, the acculturation of societies within each state is inevitable: peer pressure and socialization, together with increased communications, international NGOs and globalization lead to a assimilation of beliefs about human rights and the power of international human rights law. A number of international human rights treaties and other instruments adopted since 1945 have given legal form to inherent human rights and have developed the body of international human rights.